Remember when knowledge was important? #TBT

Jef Safi https://flic.kr/p/kVoeN

cc licensed ( BY NC ND) flickr photo by Jef Safi https://flic.kr/p/kVoeN

I recently read an excellent book by Joshua Foer, called Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything (2011), and it really struck a chord. In a world where we have access to an almost infinite amount of knowledge, what do we know? I mean really know. While I can Google, “How to speak Latin”, that does not mean I know Latin. What we retain, and are able to recall and to apply, constitutes what we know — and I believe the distinction matters. Foer (2011) talks about memory and how it is in essence, who we are. What we know, what we remember, helps make up our identity, so why do we know place so little value on remembering? I am guilty of this no doubt, every phone number I “know” would be lost if my iPhone ever bit the dust (don’t worry, I back it up), my synced calendar allows me to remember where I am going and what I am doing on a day to day basis, and I am pretty sure I would never remember my Dad’s birthday if it wasn’t programmed into my reminders.

James Vaughan https://flic.kr/p/7GMJ12

cc licensed ( BY NC SA) flickr photo by James Vaughan https://flic.kr/p/7GMJ12

Foer talks about the phenomenon of “external memory” (Foer, 2011, p.19), the use of systems outside of our own brain to store information. But if this information is stored outside of ourselves, can we really count it as our knowledge, part of what we know? This is all getting a little philosophical, my real focus is quite practical, specifically, how the concepts of “memory”, “remembering” and “knowledge” apply to education.

It may seem obvious that knowledge is an important part of education, but the subject is more divided than you would think. Much focus has moved toward learning how to learn, developing thinking skills, and navigating the vast amount of information that exists in places such as the internet. In turn, our focus has turned away from the content, or the acquisition of knowledge that was once the primary objective in school. The thinking is that if we teach students how to learn – where to find information and how to process it- then they will be able to learn anything, not just the small amount of content that we present to them in school. In theory, this is right on point. As the old adage goes, why give a man a fish, when you can teach him how to fish? The only problem is, what if we spend all of our time learning how to fish, hunt and farm, but we never actually get around to catching the fish, shooting the deer, or plowing the field. The “fish” is still important. What I am trying to say, is content or knowledge has value, in and of itself. When we learn about a particular topic we start creating this wonderful web of knowledge in our brains, it will stick if  it has other related information to grab onto, and in turn, it will catch and retain more information as well. The more we know about a particular subject, the more we are able to learn (Foer, 2011). While it is true that you can “Google” almost anything if you need to know about it, having information “saved” in these external memory keepers doesn’t build the neural pathways, or the web, that retaining knowledge in your brain does.

The act of remembering or retaining knowledge actually takes some practice. Maryellen Wiemer (2014) explains that studies have shown that merely reading, or going over notes, for example, does very little to help retain the knowledge. In fact it can actually be counter productive because when re-reading or going over notes, we are lulled into a false sense of “knowing” because everything sounds familiar, when in fact, the information has not been learned (Wiemer, 2014). In order to learn something, you must actively process it, this may mean summarizing the content, reflecting on it, talking about it, teaching it to someone else, or using strategies such as mnemonics to really implant the information in your brain in a retrievable format.

While it is still up for debate if our memory is like a muscle, that will grow when exercised, it is safe to say that if you don’t use it, you lose it. Foer (2008) talks about the amazing memories that individuals in certain professions have, for example the memory of a waiter for remembering orders. It turns out that memory is pretty specific because of the pathways we build, so that waiter, likely won’t be able to remember old baseball stats just because he has a keen ability to remember 18 drink and food orders. So this brings me back to education, perhaps it is important to serve up a well rounded meal of content, to act as a net for future learning. While we are teaching the process of learning, we musn’t forget to help our students acquire background knowledge.

How do we go about doing this? As is described in The Outlier (2008) by Malcom Gladwell, experts aren’t born, they are made… through a lot of practice. You have likely heard about the 10 000 hour rule, where it takes 10 000 hours to become great at anything (Gladwell, 2008). Foer (2008) takes this notion one step further and talks about the type of practice that “experts” embark upon. It is not just mindless rote repetition, it is mindful and reflective. In fact, the main reason that people plateau at a certain skill level is because they have gotten “good enough” to perform the task, and autopilot turns on. Any practice from that point on will only maintain the current level of functioning. Instead, experts are constantly analyzing and receiving feedback on the parts of their “game” that they have not yet perfected. This allows them to avoid auto-pilot and continue their progress (Foer, 2008). As teachers we can learn from this. To help our students step up their “game”, we need to help them engage in active reflection and give them timely and accurate feedback so they can continue to take those tiny steps toward their learning goals.

In summary, learning how to learning is crucial but retaining knowledge is also very important. The more we learn, the more we are able to learn by creating a vast and sticky web of background knowledge that allows us to catch and retain new pieces of information. We must teach our students how to remember effectively and give them plenty of time to practice this skill. Lastly, as teachers we must encourage our students to reflect upon their learning and give them timely and accurate feedback so that they can continue to progress through obstacles and learning plateaus. Perhaps this all sounds obvious and simple, but in a world where knowledge is often consumed rather than valued, it is surprising how often these lessons are missed.

–Kathryn Kindrat

References

Foer, J. (2011). Moonwalking with Einstein: The art and science of remembering everything. New York: Penguin Press.

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success. New York: Little, Brown and Co.

Weimer, M. (May 14, 2014). Is Rereading the Material a Good Study Strategy? In Teacher Professor Blog. Retrieved on July 2, 2014 from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-professor-blog/rereading-material-good-study-strategy/

 

 

How does a teacher’s perception of a student with a disability play a role in the student’s success, or lack thereof, in the classroom?

cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Dheepak Ra: http://flickr.com/photos/baejaar/8437344/

Imagine if you were labelled (and treated accordingly), by the things you couldn’t do? You shouldn’t swim because you can’t breath under water. You can’t get that item up there because you are not tall enough. You can’t fly because you aren’t trying, but what really frustrates me is that you have a bad attitude because you are too scared to even attempt it. From this perspective, life is filled with obstacles rather than opportunities. Obviously there are many areas in life where each and everyone of us is disabled, but we choose to focus instead on the things we can do and that enables us to take action – to live. We work around our “disabilities” by making use of various strategies and accommodations, “assistive technology” and the support of others. We swim by coming up for air, or using a snorkel; we grab things that are out of our reach by climbing a ladder or asking someone that is taller to help us; we fly using an airplane, a helicopter or our imaginations. More importantly, we are not defined by these negative attributes. “Most people can expect to be considered ‘disabled’ at one time or another in their lives. This in no way detracts from their fundamental worth as human beings” (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2010, p. 7).

When we are working with our students, those with disabilities and those without, we should take a strengths based approach. Our perception of our students guides the type of education we offer, the behavior we display, the relationship we build and the expectations that we hold; in turn, students are positively or negatively impacted. An interesting example of a self-fulfilling prophecy, comes from the broadcast of, “ A Class Divided” (Peters et al., 1985). In an exercise to give students a first hand experience dealing with discrimination, Jane Elliot tells her “blue-eyed” students that they are in fact smarter than the other students because of their eye color. Those “blue-eyed” students go on to achieve better test results than the other students, in fact, they achieved better results than they ever had before. Adversely, the other students, who were told repeatedly that they probably couldn’t do it (because of their eye color), yielded lower results than in the past (Peters et al., 1985). This did not occur because the “blue-eyed” students were smarter or more talented than the students without blue eyes. It happened because the teacher’s perception changed (in this case to prove a point), this directly affected her attitude, demeanor, expectations and behaviors towards her students; then, as if by magic, her students’ self-perception adjusted in response to the feedback, and produced the “expected” results. The power of perception is undeniable.

When working with students who have disabilities we can help or hinder the student’s success simply by changing our perceptions. A student should not be described or labelled based on his or her disability, instead he/she should be viewed as a person first, with a unique set of strengths, weaknesses and needs. Even our private and professional dialogue must change to reflect this concept; for example, he is a person with a disability, not a disabled person (Concordia University, n.d.). In practice, this means we teach the whole child. For example, I have a student who needs extra time to process information and has a difficult time retaining it; she often gets frustrated because she feels like it takes her longer to accomplish tasks. On the other hand, this child is an excellent artist. Instead of focusing on her disability or weakness, “We went over this last week, you need to learn to focus more. You aren’t going to have time to finish this now, so I will have to help you finish it at recess”, I try to utilize her strengths, “Remember that poster that you created last week on this topic? Close your eyes and think about the things you included; use your drawing to help you answer these questions”. This way, she is thinking about something that she can do really well, instead of something that she struggles with; and she is using her strength as a strategy to help her complete the task rather than focusing on what is holding her back. Using a strength based approach, this student is more likely to attempt the task, and be successful. We can empower our students by letting them know that we think they can succeed, and helping them find the tools they need to do it.

We must first change our own perceptions, then we can work on improving how each student perceives himself/herself and the world.

References

Concordia University (n.d.). Week 1 – Introduction to Inclusive Education. In EDCI 528 Foundation Concepts for Inclusive Teaching.  Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/k2arrsa

Mastropieri, M. & Scruggs, T. (2010). The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc..

Peters, W., Cobb, C., Elliott, J., Freidus, L., Hanser, D., Yale University., WGBH (Television station : Boston, Mass.), …  PBS Video.  (1985, March 26).  A class divided.  [Television broadcast].  S.l.: PBS.  Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided/etc/view.html 

*I originally wrote this post on February 27, 2013 as a part of EDCI 528 – Concordia University, Portland, Oregon. 

How do we learn best? Ask a baby!

If you are ever wondering how people learn best, just take 15 minutes and watch a baby!

You learn by experiencing things.

Mya eating her bookI show my 4 and a half month old daughter a new book, she eyes it with curiosity, then she quickly grabs it with her hands and stuffs the corner in her mouth. She proceeds to lick and chew on it, with a funny look on her face, as if to say “this doesn’t taste like I thought it would”, but continues to lick, just to make sure. Thank goodness it is made out of that indestructible paper (think new Canadian money sans all the germs!). As she continues to explore with her senses, I start telling a story with the pictures, pointing at the animals as I describe them and imitating their sounds and gestures. You can tell that she is interested in what I am saying and pointing at, even if she doesn’t understand it yet, because every once and a while she will look up from her slobbery chew fest and stare at the picture I am pointing at, then up at me, then back to the picture, then up at me, then back to chewing. After a quick rendition of E-I-E-I-O, she treats me with a big toothless grin and blows some bubbles — she must have liked my version of a cow’s “Mooooooooo”! Then she shoves the book in her eye. Luckily, she quickly decides that she much prefers “reading” using her mouth, even if it is just by licking the book for right now.

Mya chewing her bookMy daughter is learning about books… and reading… and social interaction… and the world. She is learning by experiencing, with every sense, every lick, every smile. Can you imagine I tried to teach her about all of that, by standing up in front of her for an hour and telling her about it.

Mya, this is a book and it is really great because there are all these words and you can read them… no not right now, you are learning right now. Anyway, as I was saying…

I am pretty sure she would turn her attention towards the lamp if that were the case. So why do we expect kids to learn by telling them about things? Yes, a certain amount of background information is helpful, and yes, talking is a part of teaching, but how we talk, and why we talk, needs to be analyzed a little bit. Are we adding to their experience? Or taking away from it?

I think back to a grade 8 Social Studies classes where I was droning on about Edo Japan… watching as the eyes of my students glazed over. Was I really teaching at that moment? Nope. After that class, I decided the students would be better served by experiencing Edo Japan. While I wish I could have loaded them on to a jet plane for an international field trip, I did the next best thing on a budget of $0.oo. I gave them a list of the things they were supposed to “know” or be able to “do” by the end of the unit (“I can” objectives) and I told them they needed to research Edo Japan and find something they found interesting. They needed to find out everything they could about that topic and make it come alive in the classroom, as they would be letting other students experience it. As a teacher, I became a facilitator and supported the students in finding the information and materials they needed to learn and create. I talked, not at them, but with them. At the end of the unit, instead of having a class full of apathetic zombie junior high students and 30 tests to mark, I had a papier mâché panda (almost… it moulded a little in the cupboard, a lesson in and of it self), complete with a bamboo backdrop. I had a group of samurai, wielding their own hand made wooden swords, which I enjoyed watching, after a sushi tasting and a presentation on the Shogun of the time. I had students who spent time at recess, voluntarily (!!!), finishing certain aspects of their projects. But, most importantly, I had a class of students who experienced Edo Japan, and were able to share their experiences with others (they even invited the grade 1/2’s to check out their work). Now this wasn’t perfect, and it was messy, both literally and figuratively, but I would do it again in a heartbeat.

I am betting that once my daughter reaches junior high (ahhhhh!!!), that she will learn a whole lot more from experiential learning than getting talked at. In fact, she would probably learn more from chewing on her textbook.

As I ponder this, I wonder what we can do as teachers to transform the classroom into a true place of learning, of experiencing, while still supporting and scaffolding students in their learning journey. This is as question I will continue to ask myself as I start planning for next year!